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- Number 1 (2011)
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- Number 1 (2012)
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- 2013
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Volume 8
- Number 1 (2015)
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Submission Due Date: May 12, 2017
Notification to Authors: May 31, 2017
Journal Publication: July 15, 2017 onwards


Journal of Engineering & Technological Advances
Chief Editor:
Dr. Chia Chee Ming
Deputy Chief Editor:
Dr. Leelavathi Rajamanickam
Prof. Omar Munir
Dr. Yap Pow Seng
Pn. Salmaliza Salleh
Mr. Chen Woon Choong
Ms. Kate Lam Woon Yee
Asia Pacific Journal of Health Sciences Research
Chief Editor:
Dr Neeraj Malhotra
Deputy Chief Editor:
Prof. Dr. Jamaludin Zainol
Datuk Dr Khairiyah Abd Muttalib
Prof. Dr Nyan HL
Assoc. Prof. Tey Kim Kuan
Assoc. Prof. Ong Bee Leng
Asia Pacific Journal of Business, Humanities & Education
Chief Editor:
Dr. Mahiswaran Selvanathan
Deputy Chief Editor:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Stanley Yap
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Firdaus Low Abdullah
Dr. Mahadevan Supramaniam
Dr. Chong Wei Ying
Dr. Ramachandran Ponnan
Refractive error changes relative to age
Author : Foo, Say Kiang
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Refractive error changes from infancy to late adulthood. Hyperopic state of refraction error was reported in infancy and early childhood. Most of the refractive changes occur mainly between 3 to 9 months of age which indicates emmetropization and it correlates significantly with axial length elongation. High prevalence of astigmatism is found in early life of infant but it decreases rapidly in the first year. More myopia/less hyperopia is associated with increased age in school-age children and the progression is related to genetic and environmental factors. Astigmatism is rather constant during school-age years. The young adults have the most stable refractive error compared to other age groups. Myopia onset and progression are the most common refractive changes in this group which could be caused by vitreous chamber elongation. Hyperopic shifts were observed after the age of 40 which could be due to decreasing lens power with aging or increasing optical density of the lens. Myopic shift associated with nuclear cataract were found in later adulthood and its onset is dependent on the origin of the population sample. Higher rates of astigmatism are found in older adults and conditions against the rule are the most common axis.
Authors(s) Affiliations
Faculty of Optometry & Vision Sciences, SEGi University